Section 3 of the Housing & Urban Development Act of 1968


And even where there is no designated process, it may be possible to challenge an elected official’s candidacy by writ of mandamus, where an individual petitions a court to compel or withhold an administrative action, such as refusing to administer an oath of office to someone disqualified to hold that office. You are not required to update Form I-9 when your em­ployee has a legal change of name. However, it is recom­mended that you maintain correct information on Forms I-9 and note any name changes in Section 3. Although Form I-9 regulations do not require employees to present documentation to show that they have changed their name, you should take steps to be reasonably assured of your employee’s identity if there has been a legal name change.

  • Clear boundaries around — and evidence of — the acts the committee has uncovered in its work could be instructive to a court or other body hearing a challenge under the above legal framework.
  • Democrats (and the most conservative Republicans) in Congress claimed that Section 3 was an unconstitutional bill of attainder.
  • When these opportunities are created, Section 3 requires that preference is provided to the low- and very low-income residents of the local community (regardless of race & gender), and the businesses that substantially employ them, for new employment, training, and contracting opportunities resulting from the HUD-funded project.
  • The purpose of Section 3 is to ensure, to the greatest extent feasible, that economic opportunities, most importantly employment, generated by certain HUD financial assistance shall be directed to low- and very low-income persons, particularly those who are recipients of government assistance for housing or residents of the community in which the Federal assistance is spent.

American constitutional law quite frequently gives substantial weight to constitutional opinions that are inconsistent with what the persons responsible for a constitutional amendment may have expected, intended, or meant. Consider the contemporary significance of the Slaughter-House Cases (1872), which neutered the privileges and immunities clause of Section 1 that most Republicans in 1866 thought was the most important rights provision in the Fourteenth Amendment. On questions concerning the weight of precedents, the legal historian must defer to the doctrinalist, having little more to offer than any other citizen. Like the federal government, some states have codified processes for individuals to petition courts for a writ of quo warranto.35 However, even in states where the process has not been codified, it may still be possible to petition a court to remove a disqualified office holder under the common law writ of quo warranto. These processes can be used to remove disqualified elected state or local office holders and appointed state or local office holders.


The Section 3 requirements help promote training, employment, contracting, and other economic opportunities to low- and very low-income persons. Grantees are required to report on all labor hours worked, Section 3 labor hours, and Targeted Section 3 labor hours, as well as the efforts afforded by the grantee and contractors to employ section 3 workers and contract with Section 3 businesses when the HUD-mandated goals are not met. Subrecipients, contractors, and subcontractors who perform work on a Section 3 covered project are monitored for compliance. Section 3 compliance reports and documentation that demonstrate qualitative efforts made to comply with Section 3 are required throughout the duration and at the completion of each project. Insurrection is a rising against civil or political authority,– the open and active opposition of a number of persons to the execution of law in a city or state. …  It is not necessary that there should be bloodshed; it is not necessary that its dimensions should be so portentous as to insure probable success, to constitute an insurrection.

What is Section 2 and 3?

The length of time you could be detained for depends on the type of mental health condition you have and your personal circumstances at the time. You could be detained for: up to 28 days under Section 2 of the Mental Health Act. up to 6 months under Section 3 of the Mental Health Act, with further renewals.

No Republican who voted for the Fourteenth Amendment took the Doolittle/Chase position in part because, as noted above, Republicans proponents of the Fourteenth Amendment repeatedly denied that Section 3 imposed a punishment. Chase’s claim to the contrary is another example of his hostility to Section 3, and not an instance of his implementing faithfully the handiwork of Republicans in Congress. We are very grateful to Aislinn Kelly-Leith and Thomas Wright for their research assistance on the section 3 case law. Overall, we found relatively few cases in which s.3 was decisive to a case’s outcome. However, when it was, its use, although important, was not radical with the courts being vigilant to not undermine Parliament’s intention. The Home Purchase Assistance Program (HPAP) gives up to $202,000 in down payment and closing assistance to eligible first-time homebuyers.

Article. IV.

Electoral Boundaries (Sask.) (1991),[10] it was found that constituencies should have roughly the same number of voters, although perfection was not required. The reasoning behind this expansion of section three’s meaning was that it supposedly reflected the original purpose of the section, namely to allow “effective representation.” The concession that perfection is not required stemmed from the fact that perfection would be impractical, given geographical limits in drawing boundaries and a general desire to give minorities more representation. While Saskatchewan’s constituencies were found to be valid in the 1991 decision, Prince Edward Island’s were later deemed unconstitutional by the courts and the province’s electoral map had to be redrawn. The Section 3 Guidebook is a resource intended to help HUD grant recipients, sub-recipients, contractors, and Section 3 businesses who manage or implement the Section 3 provisions. Additionally, review the Section 3 Guidebook Tools for resources and sample tools.

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These debates provide some perspective on Republican thinking on the meaning and implementation of the rights, apportionment and financial provisions in the final Fourteenth Amendment. What Republicans thought that provision meant and how they planned to implement that provision must be determined primarily from the debates over the omnibus Fourteenth Amendment. At least two problems exist with making any confident inferences on both meaning and implementation. Under Section 3 of the HUD Act of 1968, wherever HUD financial assistance is expended for housing or community development, to the greatest extent feasible, economic opportunities will be given to Section 3 residents in that area. District residents and businesses that qualify as Section 3 residents and business concerns may receive preferences in hiring, training and contracting opportunities. Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, commonly referred to as Section 3, requires that recipients of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) funds, to the greatest extent possible, provide job training, employment, and contract opportunities for low- or very-low income residents in connection with projects and activities in their neighborhoods.

Legal Findings

Section 3 has, however, often been crucial in protecting Convention rights and realising Parliament’s overarching intention. The cases identified above, although not radical, arguably depended on s.3 to protect important rights. Under the common law principle of legality a rights-compatible interpretation is not possible in the face of clear unambiguous language (see Duport Steels Ltd v Sirs [1980] 1 WLR 142, [157] (Lord Diplock)).

  • Every such vehicle so operated shall have displayed upon it number plates, substantially as provided in section six, bearing the distinguishing number or mark of the state or country in which such vehicle is registered, and none other except as authorized by this chapter.
  • Account Managers save businesses time and money by recruiting and screening jobseekers from a citywide pool of thousands of candidates and referring the most qualified to them.
  • It’s extremely likely that at least one of those election officials will find Trump disqualified under Section 3.
  • Contemporary courts in India and Germany had declared that constitutional amendments are valid only when consistent with the fundamental principles of the constitution.

Professional services means non-construction services that require an advanced degree or professional licensing, including, but not limited to, contracts for legal services, financial consulting, accounting services, environmental assessment, architectural services, and civil engineering services. Putting aside Mr. Trump’s behavior, Reconstruction Republicans would have had no problem applying Section 3 to some other participants in the mob that invaded Congress on January 6. According to press reports, some members of the mob were former officers in the military forces of the United States. If, like Robert E. Lee, those former officers took an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, Congress by law may declare them ineligible for future state and federal office.

And lastly, there’s the  claim that Section 3 does not apply to a president who violates his oath by engaging in insurrection. The argument has been advanced by Professors Blackman and Tillman in a 54-page (post-Capitol riot) law review article. (b) Recipients of Section 3 funding must require subrecipients, contractors, and subcontractors to meet the requirements of § 75.19, regardless of whether Section 3 language is included in recipient or subrecipient agreements, program regulatory agreements, or contracts. (ii) The number of labor hours worked by Targeted Section 3 workers as defined in § 75.21(a), divided by the total number of labor hours worked by all workers on a Section 3 project in the recipient’s program year.

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Professor Ekins has suggested that “section 3 should be amended to specify that it does not authorise courts, or anyone else, to read and give effect to legislation in ways that depart from the intention of the enacting Parliament”. Though there is no statute explicitly designed to enforce Section 3, there are multiple legal processes currently available to enforce the disqualification against many of the individuals covered by the 14th Amendment. While these processes are viable without additional congressional action, a clear statement by Congress could help settle open questions and provide guidance to the various decision-makers involved in the current legal processes. To support and strengthen the existing legal processes for enforcing the disqualification clause, we recommend the Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol includes in its final report a full, particularized recital of all relevant evidence it has uncovered implicating Section 3. Although one cannot see this on the face of the Charter, the Supreme Court has also ruled that section 3 guarantees a measure of equality in voting.